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2ND WORKSHOP ON TRUST WITHIN & BETWEEN ORGANISATIONS


AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS, OCTOBER 23-24, 2003
DISTINGUISHED SPEAKERS

Professor Ranjay Gulati
Michael L. Nemmers Distinguished Professor of Strategy and Organizations
Kellogg School of Management
Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL. - USA

Professor Sim Sitkin
Center for Organizational Research
Fuqua School of Business
Duke University
Durham - North Carolina - USA

CHAIRPERSONS

Katinka Bijlsma-Frankema
Professor of Organization Sciences at EIASM
Associate professor of Organization Theory
Free University, Amsterdam
Department of Public Administration & Communication Sciences

Bart Nooteboom
Professor of Organizational Dynamics
Rotterdam School of Management
Erasmus University Rotterdam

BACKGROUND

In the past decade, issues of trust in inter- and intra-organisational relationships have been increasing in importance on the agendas of organisational scholars, legitimated by changes in the social structure of societies, economic exchange relations and organisational forms. Due to deterioration in the binding power of reciprocal obligations, of hierarchical relations and of social institutions relying on hierarchy to sanction deviant behaviour, other mechanisms to keep the social fabric of society intact seem to be required, in order to sustain co-operative behaviour in interactions. Within firms, lateral relationships and alliances are growing in importance, while new linkages between firms are being formed to achieve and maintain competitive advantage in the marketplace. In network forms and alliances, organisational performance becomes increasingly dependent on trustful relations between individuals and groups. A related development is the virtualisation of relations within organizations and markets. The question can be asked whether ‘new communities (Peter Ring)’ like virtual teams and e-business relations and –networks create distinct trust requirements?

The workshop seeks to make a contribution to the development of a European research program in this area by establishing an international forum of scholars from different disciplines. The first workshop, held in Amsterdam in November 2001, succeeded in bringing together scholars from several disciplines, such as economics, social sciences, political sciences and linguistics. In the last plenary session, the participants decided to organise themselves in the First International Network on Trust (FINT) (Trust researchers can join FINT by sending a mail to the chair, Katinka Bijlsma-Frankema). FINT members organized a track on trust at the EURAM conference in 2002 and 2003 and a symposium ‘Trust, rational choice or sensemaking?’ at the Academy of Management 2002 meeting. A special issue of Personnel Review and a book in the Organisation Studies series of John Benjamin with papers of the first workshop are in preparation.

It is hoped that the further exchanging of theoretical ideas, research methods and findings in the second workshop, will produce new exciting knowledge, new forms of collaboration, and new publications.

CALL FOR PAPERS

We invite researchers from a broad range of disciplines to submit papers to this two-day workshop to discuss their work on trust within and/or between organisations. We particularly encourage papers seeking to advance the agenda theoretically and/or empirically, and which are open to development through workshop interaction.

Papers are welcome on any kind of topic or any perspective within our scope.

Possible topics might include:

- theoretical or empirical research-based clarification of the concept of trust, dimensions of trust and related concepts, such as risk, control, cooperation;
- clarification of the relation between trust and distrust;
- relations between the concept of trust and central concepts in other fields of scholarly enterprise, such as: social dilemma’s; solidarity; organisational culture; organisational development, innovation and change; organisational learning and competence development; leadership; power-dependence; communication; commitment; OCB;
- differential trust-demands of organisational forms;
- managerial philosophies and management of embedded trust within or between organisations;
- relevant issues related to trust in managers/top-management;
- trust as a critical factor in mergers, acquisitions and strategic alliances;
- trust as a critical factor in inter-organisational networks;
- relations between trust and performance of teams, departments, organisations and alliances;
- Trust demands of ‘new communities’ like virtual teams and e-business networks;
- mutual trust as characteristic of the social, moral or symbolic order of organisations and societies
- dark sides of trust

SPECIAL SESSION I :TRUST: UNDERSTANDING THE MICRO-SOCIAL PROCESSES

Session Chairs:

T. Hatzakis, Dept. of information systems and computing, Brunel University, UK
&
R. Searle, Dept. of Psychology, The Open University, UK

Theme statement
In recent years the literature on trust has broadened in terms of the epistemological directions adopted and the levels of analysis examined. Although the role and importance of trust in managing uncertainties and vulnerabilities is widely recognised, the dynamic processes by which individuals interact to form, develop and maintain trusting relationships is not yet adequately understood. At interactional levels of analysis, often other proximal concepts, such as the development of rapport, are used to explain this dynamic. The exponential increase in the trust literature necessitates that we deal with this neglected issue of micro-social processes, if we are to help organisations move forward with effective trust building interventions.

We anticipate that this theme may comprise of research seeking to address the following questions:
1. How do people obtain trust? How do they request others’ trust and demonstrate that they are trustworthy?
2. What do people attend to when deciding whether to grant trust or not? What socio-cognitive processes do they use?
3. How do people demonstrate that they have, or have not, granted trust?
4. How do people know that they are, or are not, trusted?
5. How do people loose trust?
6. How do people move from trust to mistrust / distrust? Or vice versa?

However, this is not an exhaustive list and we would welcome other relevant micro-based topics.
We would expect contributions from those adopting symbolic-interactionist, social-constructionist, socio-cognitive, socio-linguistic or other appropriate approaches. We would welcome both theoretical and field-based papers.

Our goal, although ambitious, is to try and create an atmosphere that is conducive to the development of practical trust-based organisational change methodologies in order to facilitate organisations and their members in the development and maintenance of trust, or in the transformation of mistrust / distrust into more positive states.

Final papers are due by September 26th 2003.

The submission deadline is over

SPECIAL SESSION II : TRUST AND CONTROL: POLAR OPPOSITES OR COMPLEMENTARY MECHANISMS?

Session Chairs:

Ana Cristina Costa, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
and
Julia Connell, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

Researchers are invited to participate in a symposium on trust and control to be held at the 2nd Workshop on Trust Within and Between Organisations. The purpose of this symposium is to highlight relevant issues concerning trust and control, thereby contributing to the understanding of potential relationships between the two constructs. Control may be interpreted in a number of different ways. For example, bureaucratic control focuses on the social and organisational structure of the firm (for example, promotion, appraisal and reward systems), whereas humanistic control aims to match employee needs towards satisfying work and group interaction. The tightening or lessening of control mechanisms may also be associated with greater or lesser forms of employee autonomy and attempts to control workplace culture. Consequently, two questions arise. Firstly,

i) How, and indeed whether, trust is related to control? and, secondly
Ii) Are trust and control complementary or contradictory phenomena, in the way that they contribute to levels of organizational cooperation?

Final papers are due by September 26th 2003.

The submission deadline is over

Rationale for the Symposium
Over the past two decades there has been a proliferation of studies on the topic of trust reporting on the benefits for the effective functioning of individuals, teams, and organisations. At an interpersonal level, trust has been related to positive work attitudes and behaviours that enhance mutual learning, collaboration, cooperation and the acceptance of workplace changes that lead to higher levels of performance. It may also be argued that higher levels of performance are associated with various control mechanisms (such as those of soft and hard HRM) concentrating on increasing employee loyalty, productivity and cultural controls.
Many authors agree that trust operates as a substitute of control because it reduces transaction costs. Hence, the trend towards empowering individuals and creating self-managed work teams has led to a decrease in many of the traditional control mechanisms used to monitor employees. Despite this, it has been argued that the increased recognition of the need for trust within contemporary workplace relationships does not necessarily mean there is less need for checks and controls. Several studies have shown that trust involved high cooperative behaviours and a lack of monitoring between colleagues, indicating that trust can work as a substitute for control. Conversely, studies focusing particularly on vertical work relationships, trust have been found to relate positively to monitoring, indicating that trust and control can go hand –in-hand. Consequently, empirical research has not, to date, generated decisive support for one stance over another.
Trust and control may be associated to specific problems of risk and different risks create different areas of relevance that are related to trust. Also, the relationships between trust and monitoring are likely to change over time. If trust is to be developed within new relationships, requirements will be different to those experienced in a mature phase, where it may be perceived that monitoring is not needed to maintain optimal cooperation.
In summary, the current growth in the trust literature provides a challenge to researchers, and particularly, to the development of measures relevant to the many levels of analysis and types of trust. The chairs of this symposium intend that the papers presented will generate healthy debate, thus advancing knowledge regarding the topics of trust and control.



SPECIAL SESSION III : TRUST IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

Session chairs:

Mark Dibben
and
Huw Davies, Centre for Public Policy and Management, University of St Andrews.


Introduction

Trust in the Public Sector is a series of seminars funded primarily by two UK research institutions, the ESRC and the Nuffield Trust, and running through 2002 and 2003. The purpose is to explore the role of trust in developing effective and efficient public services in a range of public sector domains, such as health care, education, criminal justice service and social care.

Services largely delivered in the public sector (e.g. health care, social care and education) possess common characteristics that make market trading of these as ‘commodities’ problematic. Crucial among these problems is asymmetry of information and a relative lack of measurability. These characteristics in turn mean that transactions cannot readily be policed by explicit contracts and thus trust takes a prominent role in the relationship between service deliverer and client (e.g. doctor-patient, social worker-client, probation officer-offender, teacher-pupil). Political and managerial control and accountability in public sector organisations is similarly problematic because of the same core difficulties: asymmetry of information and immeasurability. Thus trust also lies at the heart of the intra- and inter-organisational relationships that may be seen to operate (e.g. in service commissioning; in professional accountability; or in exerting management control).

Focus Issues

Trust in the Public Sector is aimed at developing research capacity and capability in this major inter-disciplinary theme. Issues of particular focus include:

a. Explorations of interpersonal trust in the professional-client relationship;
b. Explorations of the role of trust in manager-professional relationships;
c. Examination of the linkages between interpersonal trust and the development of ‘high trust’ public sector organisation;
d. Examination of trust between public sector organisations in the development of partnership working;
e. Policy and managerial implications of trust in various specific public sector domains.

Exploring these issues

Because exploration can take place from many theoretical perspectives (e.g. economic, sociological, philosophical, ethical) and in many settings (public services, private sector, communities), there is a consequent difficulty in meeting and maintaining contact with researchers carrying out analogous work. Thus opportunities for cross-fertilisation are missed and productive collaboration happens only sporadically. That trust is such a cross-cutting theme also means that there is no obvious disciplinary or learned society base. In spite of this, a number of key points do need to be addressed, including:

1. A critical examination of the role of trust in public sector policy and management and, in particular, its relationship with risk.

2. The bringing together of academics from diverse disciplines (e.g. economics, sociology, social policy, public administration, organisation studies and political science) to encourage cross-fertilisation across perspectives and the development of research synergy.

3. The assessment of the practical relevance of academic models of trust to public policy formulation and implementation (in discussions with leading practitioners and key policy stakeholders).

4. Cross-sectoral learning and policy transfer between key public sector areas (most especially, health care, social care, education and criminal justice services).

A number of key writers in public sector and public policy management have agreed in principle to give papers.

Final papers are due by September 26th 2003.

The submission deadline is over

This session is supported by ESRC. Some limited funding is available to cover accommodation costs. More information on the Seminar Series can be found at www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~cppm/home.htm and click on

SPECIAL SESSION IV : RE-BUILDING TRUST

Session Chairs:

Margit Osterloh
and
Antoinette Weibel, University of Zurich


According to recent surveys public trust has been lost in a number of industries. Furthermore a quick glance through management literature suffices to see that the loss of trust in interpersonal relationships is an issue which raises serious concerns. Consequences which are discussed range from an expected rise in shirking and cheating up to social phenomena such as a loss of identification and diminishing loyalty. The questions, however, which are very seldomly addressed:

1. What are the processes of loosing trust?
2. What are the processes of re-building trust?

We are calling for papers that address this issues. Possible research questions are:

1. Rebuilding trust on different levels (individual, institutional, intermediated)
2. Rebuilding trust from different perspectives (trustor, trustee, dyad)
3. What constitutes organizational trustworthiness and how is it regained?
4. The functions of industry standards to rebuild trust.
5. What are the functions of legal regulations in rebuilding trust?
6. Lying or apologizing – what is the better reaction to a loss of public/consumer trust?
7. Under what conditions does a spiral of distrust evolve?

Final papers are due by September 26th 2003.

To submit, please go to the "call for papers" section and upload your paper electronically. You are also requested to send one copy to the session chairs :
osterloh@ifbf.unizh.ch
aweibel@ifbf.unizh.ch

SPECIAL SESSION V : TRUST IN A CHANGING WORLD

Session Chair:

Denise Skinner, Reader in SHRM, Oxford Brookes University Business School, Wheatley, Oxford, OX33 1HX. UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1865 485912.
E-mail:
denise.skinner@brookes.ac.uk

In the latter stages of the twentieth century the business environment became increasingly turbulent requiring organizations to continually change and adapt in pursuit of success, or, in many cases, survival. There is little to suggest that the necessity of organizational change will diminish in the twenty first century. Organizations operate in an environment where the ability to successfully manage continuous change and to establish co-operative inter- and intra- organizational relationships have become accepted as necessary for survival. This is true not only for private sector organizations where it is argued that change is necessary to maintain competitive advantage, but also in the public sector. Here, change in traditional practice has been required in pursuit of greater accountability, efficiency and, in many cases, in order to compete with the private sector.

Many of the ingredients for successful change in an organisation have also been identified as areas in which trust has a significant contribution to make, not least in the context of the relationships between individuals and groups. Change requires the sustained commitment and goodwill of staff at every level and, it has been argued that trust can significantly increase both commitment and effectiveness. Leadership based purely on the use of power, knowledge and control does not create a sustainable basis for motivating others or for generating commitment. Management and employees can more effectively achieve organisational goals if they trust and cooperate with each other. The potential cost of trust deficits, therefore, is enormous. Yet, change within organizations has, in many cases, challenged long established traditions, certainties, structures, working practices and assumptions. Undermining, in many cases, the very foundations on which trust has existed. From a management perspective, new approaches to work mean fundamental changes to the nature of management and the role, and extent, of trust increasingly becomes an issue. Through delegation of authority managers inevitably increase their vulnerability, for employees may behave opportunistically, personal needs may conflict with collective needs of the organisation or there may be incompetence or ignorance on the part of those in whom the authority is placed. From an employee perspective decades of change have had a significant impact on the employment relationship, organisational change is often perceived as destabilising and threatening, leaving obligations and expectations unfulfilled often leading to vulnerability, loss of security and inevitable mistrust.

The nature, role and contribution of trust are therefore important factors which need to be explored in the context of attaining successful change. Authors are invited to submit papers which deal with any aspect of this topic. It is planned that the best papers presented in this track will be included in a special edition of the Journal of Strategic Change. Possible topics might include:

· The changing nature of employment relationships and the psychological contract
· Creating and maintaining trust during change
· Trust as a critical factor in successful change
· Trust and vulnerability
· Issues of equity and justice
· Employee involvement, communication and trust
· Sources of mistrust and distrust in times of change

Final papers are due by September 26th 2003.

The submission deadline is over

SPECIAL SESSION VI : TRUST IN MARKETING

Session Chair:

Sandro Castaldo
Bocconi University, SDA School of Management, Marketing Dept.,Via Bocconi, 8 - 20136 Milan, Italy
Tel: +39.02.5836.6881 - Fax: +39.02.5836.6888 - E-mail: sandro.castaldo@sdabocconi.it

Trust is a construct that permeates all market relationships. It is a basic element in order to have an exchange of knowledge between buyer and supplier or partners of marketing alliances; it is the fundamental antecedent of collaboration in channel relationships, too. Trust allows for a positive closing of agreements between buyer and salesman, and it is an essential element of customer-based resources, e.g. brand equity and customer loyalty. Finally, trust is a fundamental prerequisite for the production of economic value.
For this reason trust has rapidly become a key construct in marketing literature. Initially, a particular interest in this topic was shown by relational studies: industrial marketing, distribution channels and sales management. More recently, also researches of consumer and service marketing topics have focused their studies on trust as a key customer-based resource. Actually, the volume of works on this topic as well as the variety of approaches calls for an effort to analyse them all systematically, on the one hand, and for a radical improvement of knoweldge on more specific trust-related issues, on the other hand.

Researchers are invited to submit conceptual and empirical papers which deal in particular with the following topics:

- New trust definitions, construct’s dimensions, antecedents and consequences
- Trust, customer satisfaction, brand image and customer loyalty: relationships and contiguities
- Improving buyer-seller working partnerships through trust
- Trust in sales management and key accounting
- Relationships between personal trust and interorganizational trust
- Trust in marketing networks and systems: the role of actor’s position and features
- Longitudinal studies: the role of trust in the buyer-seller’s relational life cycle
- Trust, e-commerce and on-line marketing
- Global trust: a call for cross cultural studies
- Trust as invisible asset: social and relational capital
- Trust, social and corporate responsability and new ethics
- Methodologies and experimental approaches to measure trust in market relationships
- Trust, economic value and market performance

Final papers are due by October 13th 2003.

The submission deadline is over

WORKSHOP FINAL PROGRAMME

To download the final programme of the Workshop, please click HERE.

PRACTICALITIES

THURSDAY EVENING BUFFET

This evening buffet will be hosted by
The Free University Amsterdam
and will take place at "DE HOOP", a lovely location on the river Amstel.

LOCATION :

The workshop will take place in the Planetarium Gaasperplas, a conference center located a little bit outside of the Amsterdam City Center.

Here is the address of the Planetarium Gaasperplas :
Kromwijkdreef 11
1108 JA Amsterdam Zuidoost
Tel: 31 20 - 651 85 83
Fax: 31 20- 651 85 00

Please click HERE to see some joining instructions to reach the Planetarium.

From the following web site, please find a map of Amsterdam and some more practical information :

http://www.vu.nl/english/algemeen/route.html


ACCOMMODATION :

Here are some hotels suggested. You are requested to contact the hotel directly to make your booking :

Hotel Campanille (located next to the Conference center)
Loosdrechtdreef 3
1108 AX Amsterdam Zuidoost
t: 31 20 696 1129
f: 31 20 69135 69

Tulip Inn Amsterdam City West
Reimerswaalstraat 5
1069 AE Amsterdam
t: 31 20 4108017
f: 31 20 4108030
(free transport to the Planetarium Gaasperplas)

Hotel Mercure
Joan Muyskenweg 10
1096 CJ Amsterdam
t: 31 20 6658181
f: 31 20 6948735

 Fees will be posted shortly

Cancellations made before October 15, 2003 will be reimbursed minus 20% of the total fee. No reimbursement will be possible after that date.

Payments should be made by :

  • The following credit cards: Visa or Eurocard/Mastercard/Access

DOWNLOAD LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

DOWNLOAD ACCEPTED PAPERS

ADMINISTRATION

Ms. Graziella Michelante - EIASM Conference Manager
EIASM - PLACE DE BROUCKÈRE-PLEIN - 31 - 1000 BRUSSELS - BELGIUM
Tel: +32 2 226 66 62 - Fax: +32 2 512 19 29
Email: michelante@eiasm.be